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Class VIII: Chapter 4 (Agriculture) Question & Answers

Q1. Define: (a) Jhumming (b) Transhumance (c) Arable Land
Ans: (a) Jhumming: Shifting agriculture in India is known as Jhumming.
(b) Transhumance: The seasonal movement with livestock, uphill during the summers and downhill during the winters in search of pastures is called Transhumance.
(c) Arable Land: The land on which crops are grown is known as "Arable Land.

Q2. What is Agriculture?
Ans: The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming. The word "Agriculture" has been derived from the Latin word "Ager or Agri" meaning "Soil" and "Culture" means "Cultivation".

Q3. What are the factors affecting Agriculture?
Ans: Some of the physical and economic factors which greatly influence agriculture are:
Physical Factors: Relief, Climatic Conditions (Temperature, Rainfall, etc.), Fertility of Soil, etc.
Economic Factors: Availability of farm inputs (Capital, Good quality seeds, Fertilizers, Tools & Machines, etc.), Availability of cheap labour, Transportation Facility, Market, Government Policies, etc.

Q4. What is a farm system?
Ans: Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system.
(a) Input: The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery, labour, etc.
(b) Process: Some of the operations involved are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding & harvesting.
(c) Output: The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy, poultry products, etc.

Q5. Define types of economic activities.
Ans: There are three types of economic activities. These are:
(a) Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
(b) Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing of primary goods into finished goods. They get raw material from the Primary sector. For e.g. Iron ore into tools & machines, sugar cane into sugar, etc.
(c) Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

Q6. Write a short note explaining the different cropping seasons.
Ans: There are three major cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(a) Rabi: Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between February to April. Major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.
(b) Kharif: Crops are sown in summers between May to July and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October. Major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, jute.
(c) Zaid: In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops like: watermelon, cucumber are grown between April to June.

Q7. What is Agriculture Development?
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways such as:
(a) Increasing the cropped area.
(b) Multiple cropping (Number of crops grown in a year)
(c) Improving irrigation facilities
(d) Use of fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds.
(e) Mechanization of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.

Q8. What are Millets? List out the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets.
Ans: Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as grains. Millets are also known as coarse grains. Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets are:
(a) These grains can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils.
(b) It needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature.
(c) Jowar, bajra and ragi are millet crops grown in India.
(d) Major producers: China, India, Nigeria, USA, Brazil, etc.

Q9. State the geographical conditions favourable for cultivation of:
(a) Rice           (b) Wheat           (c) Cotton           (d) Coffee
Ans: Following are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of rice and wheat:-
(a) Rice:
• Rice is the major food crop of the world. It is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions.
• Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water.
• Leading producers of rice in the world: - China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, etc.

(b) Wheat:
• It requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
• It requires well drained loamy soil for its growth.
• Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India.

(c) Cotton:
• Cotton is a fiber crop grown in tropical areas. Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
• It grows best on black soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
• China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton. It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.

(d) Coffee:
• Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
• It requires warm & wet climate and well drained loamy soil.
• Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
• In India coffee is cultivated in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Q10. Explain subsistence farming and Commercial farming. Draw a flow chart to define types of Farming.
(a) Subsistence Farming: This type of farming is practiced to meet the needs of the farmer's family. Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour were used to produce on small output. Subsistence farming can be further classified as intensive and primitive farming.
Primitive farming is further classified into two: Shifting cultivation and Nomadic herding.

(b) Commercial Farming: In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides and high yielding variety of seeds are used in order to get maximum output.
Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.




Class VIII: Questions for Practice


1. What is a resource? What are the different types of resources?
2. Define sustainable development? Write the important principles of sustainable development.
3. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of resources.
4. Define Conservation of resources. Mention few steps to conserve resources.
5. Human resource is the most valuable resource of the present time. Elaborate.
6. Define value. "Use of a resource depends on its value", explain different types of values.
7. Distinguish between Natural Resource and Human Made Resource.
8. Distinguish between Ubiquitous Resource and Localised Resource.
9. Distinguish between Biotic and Abiotic Resource.
10. Distinguish between Potential and Developed Resource.
11. Distinguish between Renewable and Non-Renewable Resource.
12. Why is the conservation of resources essential?
13. Define the term Utility with a suitable example.



1. Define the following: (a) Land Degradation (b) Ecosystem (c) Extinct Species
    (d) Soil (e) Endangered Species (f) Soil Profile (g) Land Slides
    (h) Natural Vegetation (i) Tundra (j) Biosphere (k) Leaching
2. List out the factors affecting land use pattern of an area.
3. Write down the causes of land degradation and measures to control land degradation.
4. What are the different factors effecting the formation of soil.
5. What are soil horizons? Explain the various soil horizons present in a soil profile with the help of a diagram.
6. Discuss the agricultural practices that can be adopted for soil conservation.
7. Write a note on different types of soil.
8. Write a short note on the availability of water on the earth's surface.
9. What are the factors responsible for the shortage of freshwater?
10. Suggest different ways to conserve water.
11. Name the different types of natural vegetations present in the world.
12. Distinguish between Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forests.
13. Explain different ways of conservation of forests and wildlife.
14. Explain the effects of clearance and destruction of natural vegetation.
15. Define CITES. What is the role of CITES in saving the flora and fauna?



1. Define: (a) Minerals (b) Ore.
2. With the help of a flow chart explain the different types of minerals.
3. Minerals are very important to us. Why?
4. Explain the properties of minerals.
5. Explain the different methods used for the extraction of minerals.
6. Write a note to explain the distribution of minerals in the world and in India.
7. How can we conserve minerals and power minerals?
8. Why is petroleum called 'black gold'?
9. From which two minerals is nuclear energy produced.
10. Write a short note on "Energy needs of the future".
11. Write the advantages and disadvantages of:
(a) Hydel Power (b) Wind Energy (c) Oil fuel (d) Tidal Energy
12. There is a need for development of non-conventional sources of energy. Give reasons.
13. Explain different type's conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
14. Distinguish between metallic and non-metallic minerals.
15. Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.



Class VIII: Chapter 3 (Mineral and Power Resources) Multiple Choice Question's

Q1. A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is known as a .............
(a) Ore
(b) Mineral
(c) Soil
(d) Land

Q2. Which one of the following properties of a mineral is not correct?
(a) Impure
(b) Non-Renewable
(c) Non-Exhaustible
(d) Unevenly Distributed

Q3. Minerals that lie near the earth's surface are simply dug out by the process known as ...............
(a) Quarrying        
(b) Drilling
(c) Open Cast Mining
(d) Shaft Mining

Q4. Non-metallic minerals like Limestone, Sandstone, Marble, etc. are found in the ..................
(a) Metamorphic Rocks
(b) Igneous Rocks
(c) Sedimentary Rocks
(d) Weathered Rocks

Q5. .................. is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
(a) Africa
(b) Australia
(c) North America
(d) South America

Q6. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, atomic energy, etc are the examples of ..................
(a) Conventional
(b) Non- Conventional
(c) Ferrous
(d) Non-Ferrous

Q7. Aluminum is obtained from ..................
(a) Iron Ore
(b) Bauxite
(c) Crude Oil
(d) Rocks

Q8. Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called ..................
(a) Biogas
(b) Natural gas
(c) CNG
(d) LPG

Q9. .................. is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
(a) Natural Gas
(b) Crude Oil
(c) Hydel Energy
(d) Biogas

Q10. .................. can be of black, green, red, yellow or brown in colour.
(a) Copper
(b) Silicon
(c) Mica
(d) Aluminum

Q11. .................. is the world's largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
(a) Antarctica
(b) Australia
(c) India
(d) Africa

Q12. Metallic minerals which contain iron is known as .................. minerals
(a) Non-Metallic
(b) Power
(c) Ferrous
(d) Non-Ferrous

Q13. The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth's surface is called ..................
(a) Quarrying
(b) Drilling
(c) Extracting
(d) Mining

Q14. .................. is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world.
(a) Brazil
(b) America
(c) India
(d) Antarctica

Q15. .................. is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio active elements like Uranium and Thorium.
(a) Nuclear Power Energy
(b) Solar Energy
(c) Tidal Energy
(d) Wind Energy

Q16. Heat energy obtained from the earth is called ..................
(a) Solar Energy
(b) Geothermal Energy
(c) Hydel Energy
(d) Tidal Energy

Q17. China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world's leading ................. producers.
(a) Tin
(b) Gold
(c) Silver
(d) Diamond

Q18. .................. is a rock deposit that contains enough mineral to make it economically feasible to extract and purify to derive a desired product material.
(a) Coal
(b) Mineral
(c) Bauxite
(d) Ore

Q19. ................. is used in computer industry and is obtained from quartz
(a) Copper
(b) Silicon
(c) Mica
(d) Aluminum

Q20. .................. can be obtained by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.
(a) Geothermal Energy
(b) Hydel Energy
(c) Tidal Energy
(d) Wind Energy



Class VIII: Chapter 3 (Mineral and Power Resources) Question & Answers

Q1. Define minerals.
Ans: A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is known as a mineral.

Q2. Name the leading producers of petroleum in the world.
Ans: The leading producers of petroleum in the world are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria.
The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.

Q3. What are the main characteristics of minerals?
Ans: The three main characteristics of minerals are:
(a) Minerals are present in impure form and it takes millions of year to form these minerals.
(b) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.
(c) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.

Q4. Mention the distribution of minerals in North America.
Ans: The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones:
(a) Canadian Shield - Iron ore, Nickel, Gold, Uranium and Copper.
(b) Appalachian Region – Coal
(c) Western Cordilleras - Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold and Silver.

Q5. Why minerals are considered as an important asset to mankind?
Ans: Minerals are considered as an important asset to mankind, because of the following reasons:
(a) Backbone of Industries.
(b) Necessary for the production of all types of tools, machines, implements, etc.
(c) Construction Work.
(d) Maintain health of the people.
(e) Manufacturing of jewellery, utensils, etc.

Q6. Explain the methods of mineral extraction.
Ans: Minerals can be extracted by Mining, Drilling and Quarrying.
(a) Mining: The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth's surface is called mining.
     (i) Open Cast Mining: Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer is known as "Open Cast Mining".
     (ii) Shaft Mining: Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depth; this is known as "Shaft Mining".
(b) Drilling: Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth's surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out; this is called "Drilling".
(c) Quarrying: Minerals that lie near the earth's surface are simply dug out by the process known as "Quarrying".

Q7. How can we conserve minerals and power minerals?
Ans: Population growth, urbanization and industrialization have increased the consumption of minerals and power minerals to a greatest extent in the 21st century and there is a serious need for the conservation of minerals. Following are the different ways of conserving minerals:
(a) We can make use of energy efficient equipments.
(b) Looking for alternative sources of energy.
(c) Recycling of minerals.
(d) Optimum utilization of minerals.
(e) Improvement in the techniques of extraction and purification of minerals.

Q8. Write a note on the distribution of minerals in India: (a) Iron     (b) Bauxite     (c) Mica
(a) Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka. All other industries depend on iron & steel industry.

(b) Bauxite: Aluminum is obtained from bauxite. Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana and Tamil Nadu. Aluminum has strength of iron, but it is extremely light.

(c) Mica: Mica deposits mainly occur in Jharkhand, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world. Mica is made up of series of plates or leaves. It is used in Electric & Electronic industries. Mica can be of black, green, red, yellow or brown is colour.

Q9. Distinguish between Metallic and Non-Metallic minerals.

Q10. Distinguish between Conventional and non-conventional power resources.

Q11. Explain the different types of minerals on the basis of their composition.
Ans: Minerals are broadly classified into three types: Metallic, Non-Metallic and Power Minerals.
(a) Metallic Minerals: Most of the metallic minerals are found in old plateaus which mainly contains igneous and metamorphic rocks. E.g. Iron, Nickel, Platinum, etc. Metallic minerals are further classified into: Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Minerals.
      (i) Ferrous Minerals: These minerals contain iron, for e.g. iron, nickel, etc.
      (ii) Non-Ferrous Minerals: These minerals do not contain iron, for e.g. gold, silver, etc.

(b) Non-Metallic Minerals: These minerals are found in the young fold mountains, which mainly consist of sedimentary rocks. E.g. Limestone, Sandstone, Marble, etc.

(c) Power Minerals: Power or energy minerals play a vital role in our lives. We also need power for industry, agriculture, transport, communication and defense. Power resources may be broadly categorized as conventional and non-conventional resources.
      (i) Conventional Resources: These resources have been used for a very long time. For e.g. Firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
      (ii) Non-Conventional Resources: These resources are called new sources of energy. For e.g. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, etc.

Q12. Write a note on: (a) The Geothermal Energy      (b) The Solar Energy
Ans: (a) The Geothermal Energy: Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy. The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Sometimes this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power. Geothermal energy in the form of hot springs has been used for cooking, heating and bathing, etc.
USA has the world's largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.

(b) The Solar Energy: Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose. The technology of utilizing solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.
The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj (Gujarat).




Class VIII: Chapter 2 (Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife) Multiple Choice Questions

Q1. 90% of the total world population resides in .................. of the land area.

(a) 10%
(b) 20%
(c) 30%
(d) 40%

Q2. The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called ..................
(a) Soil
(b) Land
(c) Minerals
(d) Humus

Q3. The breaking up of rocks is known as ..................
(a) Erosion
(b) Reclamation
(c) Degradation
(d) Weathering

Q4. .................. is a process in which heavy rains wash away the fertile part of the soil.
(a) Cultivating
(b) Mulching
(c) Leaching
(d) Conservation

Q5. Out of the total fresh water available, nearly .................. is in the form of "ICE" and is found in glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, mountain regions, etc.
(a) 1%
(b) 2%
(c) 3%
(d) 4%

Q6. .................. is the decline in the productive capacity of land for some time or permanently.
(a) Land Reclamation
(b) Land Degradation
(c) Land use
(d) Land Profile

Q7. Natural Vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone called ..................
(a) Lithosphere
(b) Hydrosphere
(c) Atmosphere
(d) Biosphere

Q8. Species of some animals are on the verge of extinction as their population has decreased considerably. Such species are known as ..................
(a) Endangered Species
(b) Extinct Species
(c) Dying Species
(d) Dead Species

Q9. Sliding of huge debris, rocks and other material down the slope is know as ..................
(a) Volcanic Eruptions
(b) Landslides
(c) Earthquakes
(d) Tsunami

Q10. Which factor is not responsible for the formation of soil?
(a) Time
(b) Organisms
(c) Technology
(d) Relief

Q11. .................. of the earth's surface is covered with water.
(a) One-Fourth
(b) Two-Fourth
(c) Three-Fourth
(d) Fourth-Fourth

Q12. Trees in these .................. shed their leaves in a particular season in order to conserve loss of moisture through transpiration: (select the incorrect one)
(a) Evergreen Forests
(b) Tundra
(c) Deforestation
(d) Deciduous Forests

Q13. Species of plants and animals that do not exist now but existed in the past are called ..................
(a) Endangered Species
(b) Extinct Species
(c) Dying Species
(d) Dead Species

Q14. .................. soil is derived from the weathering of the igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(a) Red Soil
(b) Black Soil
(c) Laterite Soil
(d) Mountain Soil

Q15. .................. irrigation can be used in dry regions, where evaporation is very high.
(a) Sprinklers
(b) Bucket
(c) Drip
(d) Save Water

Q16. A natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations is known as ..................
(a) Wildlife Sanctuaries
(b) Bioreserves
(c) Botanical Gardens
(d) National Parks

Q17. In the biosphere living beings are inter-related and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is known as the .................
(a) Interdependence
(b) Ecology
(c) Ecosystem
(d) Food Circle

Q18. It is the uppermost layer, Rich in humus & minerals and Consists of Sand, Silt & Clay.
(a) Sub Soil
(b) Top Soil
(c) Alluvial Soil
(d) Black Soil

Q19. The fresh water is continuously being renewed and recharged through the .................
(a) Hydrological Cycle
(b) Oxygen Cycle
(c) Rock Cycle
(d) Renewable Cycle

Q20. In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover, this process is known as .................
(a) Strip Cropping
(b) Contour Barriers
(c) Terrace Cultivation
(d) Shelter Belts



Class VIII: Chapter 2 (Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife) Question & Answers

Q1. Write the major factors affecting the formation of soil.
Ans: Factors affecting the formation of soil are: Relief, Parent Rock, Climate, Time and Organisms.

Q2. What are the different factors affecting land use pattern of an area?
Ans: Factors affecting the land use pattern of an area are:
(a) Physical Factors: Climate, Topography, Water availability, Soil, Minerals, etc.
(b) Human Factors: Population Density, Need & Desire of People, Development of Technology, etc.
(c) Economic Factors: Cost of living, Occupation, Financial conditions, etc.

Q3. Explain the different methods of soil conservation.
Ans: Some of the methods that can be adopted for soil conservation are: Mulching, Contour Ploughing, Terrace Cultivation, Strip Cropping, Shelter Belts, Rock Dam, Contour Barriers, Crop Rotation, etc.

Q4. What are the factors responsible for the shortage of freshwater?
Ans: Due to overpopulation, industrialization and urbanization, the consumption of water has increased manifold. Increased agricultural production to meet the growing needs of the population, modern lifestyle of the people and greater use of electricity in industries has resulted in water scarcity in many parts of the world. Above all the pollution of water bodies is due to irresponsible and reckless attitude of mankind. This has reduced the availability of fresh water for human consumption.

Q5. Define land degradation. How can we conserve land resources?
Ans: Decline in the productive capacity of land for some time or permanently is known as land degradation.
Some of the measures that can be used or practiced to conserve our land resource are:
(a) Adopting to the scientific techniques.
(b) Land Reclamation.
(c) Regulated use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
(d) Afforestation.
(e) Check on Overgrazing.
(f) Control of Mining Activities.
(g) Proper irrigation facilities.
(h) Constructing retention walls in the mountain areas to stop landslides.

Q6. In India, what are the various steps taken to conserve forest and wildlife?
Ans: Following are few steps that have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife:
(a) National Forest Policy framed by the government should be implemented.
(b) National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bioreserves, Botanical Gardens have been setup.
(c) Special Projects (E.g. Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.).
(d) Celebration of Van Mahotsav. Every National festival is followed by tree plantation ceremony.
(e) Controlling of deforestation and overgrazing. Large scale afforestation or planting of tress is undertaken.
(f) Social Awareness Programmes to be implemented.
(g) Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

Q7. Suggest different ways to conserve water.
Ans: Some of the important ways to conserve water are:
(a) Decrease of water pollution
(b) Proper irrigation method: Sprinklers and Drip irrigation can be used.
(c) Water Harvesting Method.
(d) Water conservation in the home:
     (i) Check faults and pipes for leaks and insulate your water pipes.
     (ii) Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow valves / taps.
     (iii) Put plastic bottles or float booster in your overhead tanks.
     (iv) Take shorter showers.
     (v) Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush.
     (vi) Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads.
     (vii) When washing dishes by hand, don't leave the water running for rinsing, etc.

Q8. Differentiate between Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forests.

Q9. Write a note on different types of soil.
Ans: Different types of soil are:
1. Alluvial Soil:
(a) It is the most fertile soil found in India.
(b) The alluvial soil is found mostly in the Northern Plains and Coastal Plains of India.

2. Black Soil:
(a) The black soil is also called the Black Cotton Soil formed from the weathering of the igneous rocks.
(b) The black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap, covering large areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh, etc.

3. Red Soil:
(a) Red soil is derived from the weathering of the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The red colour is due to the high percentage of iron contents.
(b) Red soil is found in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsular plateau.

4. Laterite Soil:
(a) The laterite soil is found on the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Vindhyas, etc.
(b) Due to intensive leaching, the laterite soil generally lacks fertility. The soil is suitable for producing plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, etc.

5. Mountain Soil:
(a) This type of soil is found in the Himalayan region, the Western, Eastern Ghats, etc.
(b) This soil is especially suitable for producing plantation crops, such as tea, coffee.

6. Desert Soil:
(a) The desert soil is found Rajasthan and the adjoining areas, receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall.
(b) The desert soil has sand (90 to 95 per cent) and clay (5 to 10 per cent).


Q10. What are soil horizons? With the help of a diagram explain the various soil horizons present in a soil profile.

Ans: Vertical section of the soil from the surface to the Bed rock is known as Soil profile. The soil profile is horizontally divided into four different horizons or layers known as Soil Horizons (as shown in the diagram). Top Soil, Sub Soil, Weathered Rock and Bed Rock or Parent Rock.

(a) Top Soil: It is the uppermost layer. Rich in humus and minerals. Consists of Sand, Silt & Clay. Leaching of soil is common in this layer.
(b) Sub Soil: It lies below the top soil and supports moisture. Consists of some amount of weathered rock, Silt & Clay and some nutrients. Minerals found here is more than Horizon A.
(c) Weathered Rock: Consists of large amount of weathered rock. These rocks are not affected by biological processes.
(d) Bed Rock: Last layer of the soil horizon. Consists of solid layer of unweathered Rock.





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