Q1. Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion.
(b) Large scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.
(d) Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization.
Ans: (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.
Q2. Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Chipko Movement
(c) Beej Bachao Andolan
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries.
Q3. Match the following animals with their category of existence.
Animals / Plants Category of Existence
1. Black Buck (a) Extinct
2. Asiatic Elephants (b) Rare
3. Andaman Wild Pig (c) Endangered
4. Himalayan Brown Bear (d) Vulnerable
5. Pink Head Duck (e) Endemic
1. Black Buck (c) Endangered
2. Asiatic Elephants (d) Vulnerable
3. Andaman Wild Pig (e) Endemic
4. Himalayan Brown Bear (b) Rare
5. Pink Head Duck (a) Extinct
Q4. Match the following.
1. Reserved Forests (a) Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
2. Protected Forests (b) Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources.
3. Unclassed Forests (c) Forest lands are protected from any further depletion.
1. Reserved Forests (b) Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources.
2. Protected Forests (c) Forest lands are protected from any further depletion.
3. Unclassed Forests (a) Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
Q5. What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
Ans: Biodiversity refers to the variety of flora and fauna that exist in a given geographical area. No specie can survive alone. Thus, all the species on this earth lives in an ecosystem and all are dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors. Similarly, Human beings also depend on various biotic and abiotic factors for their survival. Directly human beings may be interacting with only few species but indirectly we depend on many other species to make our life more comfortable. Thus, biodiversity is very important for human life.
Q6. How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
Ans: Following are the human activity that has affected the depletion of flora and fauna:
(a) Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization.
(b) Expansion of Railways
(c) Agricultural expansion.
(d) Commercial and Scientific Forestry
(e) Large scale developmental projects (i.e. Construction of river valley, etc.).
(f) Mining Activities, etc.
Q7. Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
Ans: On one hand human beings are responsible for the depletion of natural and wildlife and on the other many communities have taken the initiatives to conserve and protect our forests and wildlife in India. Following are few of the examples:
(a) The Bishnoi tribes of Rajasthan have a played a significant role in protecting Black Buck, Nilgai and Peacocks.
(b) The Chipko movement is another example; women's of Chamoli village in Uttarakhand saved the forest just by hugging the trees.
(c) Many states have launched the Joint Forest Management Programme to involve local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. Odisha was the first state to launch this programme.
(d) The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district in Rajasthan have declared about 1200 hectares of forest area as the "Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri". In this forest area hunting is not allowed.
Q8. Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
Ans: Conservation of forest and wildlife is need of the hour. It is a joint efforts of the people, Government Bodies, Local Authorities, NGO's, Forest Management, etc. to preserve and protect forest and wildlife. The government should formulate rules and regulations and provide system and machinery to implement conservation programmes.
All conservation programmes should be people friendly, ecofriendly and economically acceptable. Forest areas are the habitats of the local communities and tribal people, thus all the programmes initiated by the government should not be at the cost of the destruction of forests and livelihoods of these people. A coordinated effort by all the stakeholders will give better results and we will have a better and healthier world for our survival.